19. Integer Matrices

In the last episode we introduced the fifth and final principal actor of graphical linear algebra, the antipode. This episode’s main task is showing that diagrams built up of the five generators constitute a diagrammatic language for integer matrices and their algebra. We will also discuss a cute example involving the complex numbers.

The cheat sheet for the diagrammatic system H  that includes the antipode is repeated below for easy reference.

cheat

We have already showed that H allows us to extend the syntactic sugar for natural numbers to a sugar for all the integers. We have also verified that the integer sugar obeys the usual algebraic laws of integer arithmetic. In particular, we proved that

minusonesquared

using the equations of H and diagrammatic reasoning: this is just -1 ⋅ -1 = 1, expressed with diagrams.

 


 

Let’s start with an example. The diagram below has two dangling wires on both sides.
iAs such, it ought to denote some 2×2 matrix, and to get the entry in the ith row and jth column we need to look at the paths from the jth dangling point on the left to the ith dangling point on the right.

Before the antipode entered the frame, it sufficed to count the number of paths; the current situation is a little bit more complicated because there are positive paths—those on which the antipode appears an even number of times—and negative paths, those with an odd number. To get the relevant integer entry, we need to take away the negative paths from the positive paths. So, in the very simple example above, we have exactly one positive path from the first point on the left to the second point on the right, and one negative path from the second point on the left to the first on the right. The corresponding matrix is therefore:

imat

Actually, I didn’t choose this matrix at random: it allows us to consider the complex integers (sometimes called the Gaussian integers) and their algebra in a graphical way. We will come back to this after tackling the main topic for today.


 

We want to prove that H is isomorphic to the PROP MatZ of matrices with integer entries. The letter Z is often used to mean the integers, from the German word Zahl meaning number; this notation was apparently first used by Bourbaki.

MatZ is similar to the PROP Mat that we discussed in Episodes 12 and 13: the arrows from m to n are n×m matrices, and just like before composition is matrix multiplication. The monoidal product is again direct sum of matrices.

The proof H ≅ Mat(the symbol  is notation for isomorphic to) is similar, and not much more difficult than the proof, outlined in Episodes 15 and 16, of ≅ MatLet’s go through the details.

First we define a homomorphism of PROPs from H to MatZ. Let’s call it φ, the Greek letter phi. Since both H and MatZ are PROPs, and H is a free PROP built from generators and equations, it is enough to say where φ sends all the generators, and then check that the equations of H hold in MatZ.

It turns out that φ works the same way as θ for all of the old generators. The new part is saying where the antipode goes, and not surprisingly, it is taken to the 1×1 matrix (-1). Like so:

phi

For φ to be well-defined, we need to check that all the equations of  H also hold in MatZ. Fortunately, most of that work was already done for θ, we only really need to check the new equations that involve the antipode. Let’s check the most interesting of these, (A1); we need to calculate whether the following is true:

phia1

This amounts to checking if

phia1t

and it does, indeed, work. The other equations, (A2) through to (A5) are similarly easy computations and we will skip them; but feel free to check!


 

So we have a homomorphism φ: H → MatZ. To show that it is an isomorphism, we will show that it is full and faithful. Fullness—the fact that every matrix has a diagram that maps to it via φ—is the the easy part.

First, we need to check that the sugar that we defined in the last episode works with φ as expected, which is confirmed by the following simple calculation:

negsugarv

Any matrix with integers as entries can now be constructed following the procedure described in Episode 15. We will skip the details, as it is all pretty straightforward! The upshot of the construction is that we can extend the sugar for natural number matrices to a sugar for integer matrices: given an m×n integer matrix U we obtain a sugar

matrixsugar

such that

fullness

This establishes that φ is full.


 

So what about faithfulness, the property that says that whenever two diagrams map to the same matrix then they must already be equal as diagrams?

The trick is to get our diagrams into the form where the

copying comes first, then the antipodes, then the adding  (★)

One way of doing this is to use the theory of distributive laws. Eventually we will go through all of this properly, but for now I will just give you a high-level executive overview. The main insight is that we have three different distributive laws, the first involving the adding and the copying (B1)-(B4), the second the antipode and copying (A2)-(A3), and the third the antipode and adding (A4)-(A5).

The three distributive laws, are compatible with each other in a sense identified by Eugenia Cheng in her paper Iterated distributive laws. The fact that the distributive laws play together well in this way gives us the factorisation (★) that we want. We will discuss Cheng’s results in more detail in a later episode. Incidentally, she has recently written a book about category theory and recipes; I wonder if she knows about Crema di Mascarpone!


We could also try a rewriting argument, taking for granted that the rewriting system described in Episode 16 terminates.  Adding the following rules

rew

it seems that the expanded system ought to terminate also, although I have not yet got around to proving it. These termination proofs are always really messy for a rewriting amateur like me; I would love to hear from an expert about how to do these kinds of proofs in a nice way.


 

Once we know that every diagram can be put in the form (★), the proof of faithfulness is fairly straightforward. We start with those diagrams that have one dangling wire on each side. Every such diagram in the form  (★)  is either the sugar for 0 (a single discard followed by a single zero) or it can be rearranged into the form:

1-1

for some natural number k of wires with one antipode and some natural number l of wires with no antipode. This is because we can always get rid of redundant discards and zeros with (Counit) and (Unit), cancel out multiple antipodes in series using (†), then rearrange, and eat up any annoying permutations with the iterated copy and add sugars.

Once our diagram is in this form we can desugar and repeatedly use (A1), each time destroying one pair of antipode wire and no-antipode wire. Either we end up with no antipodes left, in which case the diagram is equal to a non-negative sugar, or we end up with some number of antipode wires. In the latter case, we can use (A2) to pull out the antipode to the left, obtaining the sugar for a negative integer. We have thus shown that faithfulness holds for the (1,1) case, since every such diagram is equal to some integer sugar.

The general case, where diagrams can have any number of wires on the left and right, comes down to transforming the diagram in matrix form, as explained in Episode 16. This step completes the proof that φ is faithful, and since we already know it is full, it is an isomorphism.


 

So far we have been identifying “numbers” with diagrams of a particular kind; those with one dangling wire on each end. In B this gave us the natural numbers, and in H it gives us the integers. But, as argued in Episode 17, there’s nothing particularly special about (1, 1) diagrams; well, maybe apart from the fact that both in B and H composition for (1,1) diagrams turns out to be commutative. Our obsession with the (1, 1) case is due to history—the traditional way of doing matrix algebra means the concept of ‘number” comes first, then the concept of “matrix”.

The complex numbers are a nice example where it makes sense to consider “numbers” as something different than (1,1) diagrams  A complex number can be written as an expression r + si where rs are numbers and i is a formal entity that behaves like a number, but with the mysterious property i= -1. The numbers and s are sometimes called, respectively, the real component and imaginary components. What is important for us is that to describe a complex number, it suffices to keep track of two ordinary numbers.  Our intuition is that wires carry numbers, so it makes sense to carry a complex number with two wires, the first for the real piece, the second for the imaginary piece.

complexintuition

Now if we multiply a complex number r + si by i, we get (r + si)i = ri + sii = -s + ri. So what was the real component becomes the imaginary component, and the negative of what was the imaginary component becomes the real component. We have a diagram for that, and we have already seen it in this episode:

iint

It thus makes sense to call this diagram i:

idef

Now if we multiply r + si by an integer u, we get (r+si)u=ru + sui. So both the components are multiplied by u. We also have a diagram for that:

scalarsugar2

where on the right hand side we used the sugar for integers from the last episode.

For the rest of this section, to stop the proliferation of the digit 2 that clutters the diagrams, we will just draw the 2 wire using a thicker line, like so:

thick

Now we can do some calculations. First if we compose the diagram for i with itself we get:

isquared

We can also show that i commutes with integers:
icommutes

Following the general pattern of this blog,  we can ask what kinds of diagrams one can construct using the following gadgets.
componentsUsing our standard box of tricks for reasoning about diagrams, it is not difficult to show that the diagrams with one thick wire on each side will, in general, be of the form:

gaussint

Composing two such entities gives us

gaussianmult

which is of course what you’d get if you multiplied out two complex integers (those complex numbers u+vi where u and v are integers). In general, the diagrams that can be constructed from bricks (‡) are matrices with complex integer entries.

So what exactly is going on here? Let’s take a look under the hood.

hood

The result is in matrix form, and corresponds to the 2×2 matrix:

mat

and this is known as one way of representing complex numbers using matrices.

There is one more interesting thing to say here. Let’s take a look at the bizarro of i.

bizarro

So the bizarro of i is -i. It follows that the bizarro of a general diagram constructed in the system (‡) corresponds to the operation known as conjugate transpose in complex matrix algebra.

If you know about quaternions, they can be considered in a similar way. Of course, we are constrained to integer coefficients for now. Not for long ☺.


 

I will give a 3 hour tutorial about graphical linear algebra at QPL ’15 in two chunks on Monday and Tuesday of next week. I’m desperately trying to get the slides done on time. Running this blog has been helpful in that it forced me to develop material, but unfortunately what we have covered so far will only be enough for around the first 30 mins; I should have started this blog back in January!

Continue reading with Episode 20 – Causality, Feedback and Relations.

14. Homomorphisms of PROPs

In the last two episodes we have established that our diagrams, constructed from the four generators, and subject to the equations below, are the arrows of a PROP B.

cheat

We have also talked about another PROP, Mat, that has as its arrows matrices of natural numbers.

In maths, it is often the case that to understand something properly you need to think about how it relates to other things. Our current task is an example of this, since we need to establish exactly what we mean when we say that diagrams and matrices “are the same thing”. This brings us to the notion of homomorphism —a generic jargon word that means “structure-preserving translation”—of PROPs.

So suppose that X and Y are PROPs. It’s useful to colour them so that we can keep track of what’s going on in which world, the red world of X and the hot pink world of Y.  A homomorphism F from X to Y (written F : X  Y) is a function (a translation) that

for any arrow : m → n in X produces an arrow F: m → n in Y.

Notice that the domain and the codomain must be preserved by the translation: both A in X and FA in Y have domain m and codomain n.

But PROPs come with a lot of structure, and homomorphisms have to preserve all of it. For example, for any other arrow A’ in X, it must be the case that

F(A  A’) = FA  FA’      

The above equation says that if I translate the monoidal product of A and A’ taken in X then I get the same thing as if I had translated A and A’ separately and took the monoidal product in Y. Remember that monoidal product is defined differently in different PROPs: for example in B it is the stacking diagrams on top of each other, while in Mat it is forming a certain matrix.

Similarly, if we can compose A with A’ (which we can do exactly when the domain of A’ is n) then:

F(A ; A’)  =  F ;  FA’      ②

Again this says that translating A composed with A’ in X should be the same thing as translating the individual components separately and doing the composition in Y. Recall that in B composition is simply connecting dangling wires together, while in Mat it is matrix multiplication.

Moreover, as we have seen, every PROP has special identity arrows, one for each natural number m. These form a part of the structure of PROPs and so must also be preserved:

Fidm = idm       ③

Finally, for any natural numbers m, n, there are the special “wire-crossing” arrows σm,n that also must be preserved:

 Fσm,n = σm,n      ④

That takes care of all the structure. So if we can find a translation F that satisfies  and , we have got ourselves a homomorphism of PROPs.


 

Back in Episode 11 we started to define a translation called θ.  There we listed the matrix that is assigned to each generator:

generators

But to have a homomorphism from B to Mat, we need to give a rule θ that translates every diagram with m dangling wires on the left and n dangling wires on the right to an n×m matrix.  It turns out that because of the way in which B is constructed, the above four rules tell us everything we need in order to define a homomorphism from B to Mat. All the other stuff is predetermined.

This is because B is special: it has diagrams as arrows, and every diagram is constructed from the four generators, identity and twist. That means that there is only one way we can extend the translation above so that it defines a homomorphism.  We do not even need to say how to translate the identity and twist diagrams, since they are part of the PROP structure: they are respectively id1 and σ1,1 of the PROP B.  And  together with  tell us that they must be translated to id1 and σ1,1 in the PROP Mat:

glue

Next, since we already know how to translate the most basic diagrams, rules  and  give us the recursive rules for translating more complex diagrams. We already worked through an example.

Because of the middle-four interchange and the identity laws it does not matter how we subdivide the diagram: since Mat is also a PROP, it also satisfies these laws. Moreover, the procedure is well-defined, since, as we have seen in the last two episodes, diagrammatic reasoning amounts to using equations that hold in any PROP, and the additional equations of B that can be shown to hold in Mat: we did the work of checking this back in Episode 11.

That alleviates all of our fears from when we started discussing the translation. All that hard work of going through PROP lore is finally paying off! If you are not that impressed then don’t worry, we will have the opportunity to see many other examples of PROPs in action further on in the story.


 

Stepping back a bit from what we’ve been doing above, there is one thing worth mentioning. Back when we were talking about how natural numbers can be seen as special kinds of diagrams, I mentioned that they are free: two diagrams are considered to be equal exactly when we can prove it using diagrammatic reasoning and our equations.

In fact, the PROP of diagrams is the free PROP on the four generators and ten equations. This is the “special” nature of B that I alluded to before, and the thing that makes PROP homomorphism from B pretty easy to define: we just need to show where the generators go and make sure that the equations of B are also true in the codomain PROP.


 

How can we tell, in general, that two different languages can express exactly the same concepts?

One way is to construct a perfect translation. To understand what this could mean, we could start by thinking what non-perfect translations look like. For example, let’s pretend that I claim to be qualified English to French translator—which I’m definitely not, by the way—and you give me two English words to translate, say serendipity and dog. Suppose that both of the times I say chien. Then my translation cannot be very good, even if you don’t know what the word chien means.

The reason is that you could ask me to translate chien back to English. This would force me to choose one of serendipity or dog, or maybe something else entirely. If I say dog then you know that something went wrong:  you asked me to translate serendipity to French, I said chien, then you asked me to translate back and I said dog.

serendipity → chien → dog

Since you know that serendipity and dog are two different concepts, something clearly got lost in the translation. Even If I said serendipity, you would still be able to catch me out, since then the translation chain would be:

dog  → chien → serendipity

The moral of this story is that we would expect that a reasonable translator would not translate two different concepts in English to the same word in French.

The mathematical jargon adjective for such reasonable translations is injective. And because PROPs come from category theory, they inherit their own special jargon: a homomorphism F : X  Y is said to be faithful when,

given two different arrows A   A’ : m → n in X, we have FA  FA’: m → n in Y.

Another way a translation, say from Klingon to English, could be less than satisfactory is if there are some words in English for which a word in Klingon does not exist. This is likely because Klingon only has about 3000 words: so some English words like “serendipity” do not have a Klingon equivalent. But don’t quote me on that, I’m not an expert in Klingon.

The common mathematical jargon for a translation that hits every word in the target language is surjective,  and in the world of PROPs the word is full. So a PROP homomorphism F: X  Y is said to be full when

for all arrows B: m → n in Y, there exists an arrow A: m → n in X such that FA = B.

It turns out that a homomorphism F: X  Y that is both full and faithful is perfect in the the following sense: there exists a translation G: Y  X that “reverses” F. G is called the inverse of F and satisfies the following two properties:

  1. for all arrows A: m  → n in X, GFA = A
  2. for all arrows B: m → n in Y, FGB = B

So if I start with some A in X, translate it to Y and translate back again I end up where I started. Same if I start with some B in Y. There is a special word for homomorphisms that have inverses: they are called isomorphisms. A translation that has an inverse is about as perfect as one could expect.

The PROP homomorphism θ: Mat is full and faithful and thus an isomorphism of PROPs.  We will discuss why this is the case in the next episode.


 

The upshot of θ being an isomorphism is that the diagrams of B and matrices of natural numbers are really two languages that talk about the same thing. In particular, we should be able to translate concepts from one language to the other.

Here’s one example: we saw that the bizarro operation on diagrams, where we reflect a diagram and interchange white and black, is quite useful: it has already saved us quite a bit of work with proofs, since a proof of any claim can always be translated to a bizarro proof of the bizarro claim. So what does it mean to consider the bizarro version of a matrix: that is, if I start with a diagram D and its bizarro version Dbizarro, what is the relationship between matrices θD and θDbizarro?

Well, it turns out that the equivalent concept for matrices is called transpose. If I give you an m×n matrix A (n columns, m rows) then its transpose AT is an n×m matrix (m columns, n rows) that has, as its entry at the ith row and jth column, the entry at the jth row and the ith column of A. Intuitively speaking, the rows of A become the columns of AT. Here’s an example, if I let A be the matrix

A

then its transpose is the matrix

AT

What about a concept that maybe you’ve come across in the language of matrices? For example, linear algebra courses usually go on about special kinds of matrices called row vectors and column vectors. A row vectors is simply a matrix with exactly one row, and a column vector is a matrix with exactly one column.

So the concept of a row vector, translated to the world of diagrams, is a diagram with exactly one dangling wire on the right. Here’s an example:

row

Similarly, a column vector translates to a diagram with exactly one dangling wire on the left. Like so:

col

Some of you, especially those who are already familiar with matrices, are probably asking yourselves what is the point of having two languages to describe the same thing. It all seems to be a bit redundant, since you already know about the concept of a matrix of natural numbers. Please hang in there for now: I hope to convince you that looking at the world through the prism of diagrams gives you a different, sometimes truly surprising perspective.

Continue reading with Episode 15 – Matrices, diagrammatically